Optimal Security scans each integrated circuit on a chip-by-chip basis to identify any hardware and software vulnerabilities (e.g., back doors that may be exploited as ways to evade the tightest security of host systems). Because the power measurements for each chip are extremely accurate and high resolution, these measurements are used to "fingerprint" each individual IC for every chip-software combination. Since each chip-software combination has a unique power/temperature fingerprint, the extracted fingerprint can be compared to original design specifications. This enables identification of maliciously modified chips, and/or the presence of any malware or erroneous software on a single chip. This not only improves security of ICs integrated into systems, but the security of entire systems themselves by reducing or eliminating the potential for hacks, malicious insertion or exploitation of hidden back-door vulnerabilities.